Dr. Gary Kilpela
A behavioral syndrome characterized by the persistent presence of six or more symptoms involving (a) inattention (e.g., failure to complete tasks or listen carefully, difficulty in concentrating, distractibility) or (b) impulsivity or hyperactivity (e.g., blurting out answers; impatience; restlessness; fidgeting; difficulty in organizing work, taking turns, or staying seated; excessive talking; running about; climbing on things). The symptoms, which impair social, academic, or occupational functioning, start to appear before the age of 7 and are observed in more than one setting. ADHD has been given a variety of names over the years, including the still commonly used attention-deficit disorder (ADD).
A disorder that may result when an individual lives through or witnesses an event in which he or she believes that there is a threat to life or physical integrity and safety and experiences fear, terror, or helplessness. The symptoms are characterized by (a) re-experiencing the trauma in painful recollections, flashbacks, or recurrent dreams or nightmares; (b) avoidance of activities or places that recall the traumatic event, as well as diminished responsiveness (emotional anesthesia or numbing), with disinterest in significant activities and with feelings of detachment and estrangement from others; and (c) chronic physiological arousal, leading to such symptoms as an exaggerated startle response, disturbed sleep, difficulty in concentrating or remembering, and guilt about surviving the trauma when others did not.
Couples counseling in which guidance and advice focus on issues confronting relationships between partners. Couples counseling is short-term and problem oriented; it may include a variety of approaches to such difficult areas as shared responsibilities, expectations for the future, and loyalties.
Family counseling of parents or other family members by psychologists, social workers, licensed counselors, or other professionals, who provide information, emotional support, and practical guidance on problems faced in the family context, such as raising a child who is disabled, family planning, or substance abuse.
Techniques used by individuals—sometimes in counseling or therapy—to control their inappropriate reactions to anger-provoking stimuli and to express their feelings of anger in appropriate ways that are respectful of others. Such techniques include using relaxation methods (breathing deeply, repeating a word or phrase, visualizing a relaxing experience) to reduce physiological responses to anger, replacing exaggerated or overly dramatic thoughts with more rational ones, communicating more calmly and thoughtfully about one’s anger, and removing oneself from situations or circumstances that provoke anger or avoiding them altogether.
A negative affective state, ranging from unhappiness and discontent to an extreme feeling of sadness, pessimism, and despondency, that interferes with daily life. Various physical, cognitive, and social changes also tend to co-occur, including altered eating or sleeping habits, lack of energy or motivation, difficulty concentrating or making decisions, and withdrawal from social activities. It is symptomatic of a number of mental health disorders.
The treatment of physical or psychological illness by means of religious practices, such as prayer. Adherents hold that this may be effective even when those being prayed for have no knowledge of the fact and no belief in the process themselves.
A little more about me